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Crystal Growth 101 Literature  

Are you looking to get started in crystallization? Check out some of our Crystal Growth 101 guides to help you.


Crystal Growth 101 - Complete
The complete collection of eighteen Crystal Growth 101 articles. Introduction, Sample Preparation for Crystallization, Crystallization Screening, Sitting Drop Vapor Diffusion, Hanging Drop Vapor Diffusion, Microbatch Crystallization, Microdialysis Crystallization, Viewing Crystallization Experiments, Salt or Protein Crystals, Optimization, Drop Ratio, Temperature as a Crystallization Variable, Seeding, Buffer Formulation, Phosphate Buffer Dilution Table, Using Volatile Buffers to Adjust Drop pH and Induce Crystallization, Reagent Formulation and Handling, and Halides and Phasing. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Introduction
Introduction to the crystallization of biological macromolecules. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Sample Preparation for Crystallization
The sample is the single most important variable in the crystallization experiment. Begin with a pure, homogeneous, stable, active sample. The sample should be as pure as possible, 95 to 98%, assayed by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE. A homogeneous, active sample, free of contaminants, aggregates, and minimal conformational flexibility is desired. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Screening
Crystallization screening is the process of evaluating methods, reagents, and other chemical and physical variables with the objective of producing crystals and/or identify the variables which are positively or negatively associated with crystallization of the sample. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Sitting Drop Vapor Diffusion Crystallization
The sitting drop vapor diffusion technique is another popular method for the crystallization of macromolecules. The principle of vapor diffusion is straightforward. A drop composed of a mixture of sample and reagent is placed in vapor equilibration with a liquid reservoir of reagent. Instructional video for Sitting Drop Vapor Diffusion DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Hanging Drop Vapor Diffusion Crystallization
The hanging drop vapor diffusion technique is the most popular method for the crystallization of macromolecules. The principle of vapor diffusion is straightforward. A drop composed of a mixture of sample and reagent is placed in vapor equilibration with a liquid reservoir of reagent. Instructional Video for Hanging Drop Vapor Diffusion DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Microbatch Crystallization
Microbatch crystallization is a method where the sample and reagent are combined and sealed in a plate, tube, container, or sealed under a layer of oil. Oils can also be used as a barrier between the reservoir and the drop in traditional Hanging or Sitting Drop crystallization experiments. This is known as Vapor Diffusion Rate Control. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Microdialysis Crystallization
In the microdialysis crystallization method the sample is separated from the crystallization reagent by a semi-permeable membrane. The semi-permeable membrane allows small molecules, such as salts, additives, and other crystallization reagents to pass, but prevents biological macromolecules from crossing the membrane. Crystallization of the sample takes place due to the diffusion of crystallization reagent out of, or into the sample, at constant sample concentration. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Viewing Crystallization Experiments
How to observe crystallization experiments under the microscope and what you may see in your drops. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Salt or Protein Crystals?
Is it salt or is it protein? DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Optimization
Optimization is the manipulation and evaluation of biochemical, chemical, and physical crystallization variables, towards producing a crystal, or crystals with the specific desired characteristics. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Drop Ratio
Drop ratios allow one to explore varying levels of initial and final protein and reagent concentration, explore different equilibration paths, and cover a wider range of relative supersaturation. All by simply changing the amount of sample and reagent added to the drop. DownloadDownload
Drop Ratio Calculator
Drop Ratio Calculator is an Excel based spreadsheet that will display the effects of varying the drop ratio of sample and crystallization reagent in a vapor diffusion experiment. Protein Concentration and Reagent concentration can be entered into the gray fields and the results displayed above in the gray fields. Custom Protein Concentration and Custom Reagent Concentration can be entered into the blue fields, along with Custom Protein Volume and Custom Reagent Volume and the results displayed above in the blue fields. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Temperature as a Crystallization Variable
Temperature can be a significant variable in biological macromolecules. Temperature often influences nucleation and crystal growth by manipulating the solubility and supersaturation of the sample. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Seeding
Seeding allows one to grow crystals in the Metastable Zone, where spontaneous homogeneous nucleation cannot occur, but crystal growth from seeds can occur. Why would one want to do this? For control, reproducibility, and to improve the likelihood of a successful crystallization experiment. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Buffer Formulation
Details about the formulation of Hampton Research buffers, including how to titrate, useful pH range, pKa and more. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Phosphate Buffer Dilution Table
Use this table to easily create Sodium potassium phosphate buffers and reagents between 0.2 and 4.0 M while varying the pH between 5 and 8.2. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Using Volatile Buffers to Adjust Drop pH and Induce Crystallization
Volatile buffers, when added only to the reagent reservoir of a vapor diffusion experiment, can alter the pH of the crystallization drop by vapor diffusion of the volatile acid or base component from reservoir into the drop. This may be particularly useful when the sample is known to have pH dependent solubility and may be used to induce crystallization. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Reagent Formulation
Good crystallization results depend on being able to replicate experiments, and experiments cannot be replicated unless the reagents are made correctly and consistently. Be consistent with sources, methods, and techniques. Maintain accurate and detailed records; your future self and perhaps others, will thank you later. DownloadDownload
Crystal Growth 101 - Using Halides for Phasing
Bromide and iodide can diffuse into protein crystals when soaked with the appropriate solution and can successfully be used for phasing. DownloadDownload
Crystallization Scoring Sheet
24 well plate format scoring sheet for screening and optimization. DownloadDownload
Polyethylene glycol Stability
PEG Stability: A Look at pH and Conductivity Changes over Time in Polyethylene Glycols DownloadDownload
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